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­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­­ ­­­, ­ 18. ­ ­­­ 19. ­. ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ 19. ­, ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ 20. ­. ­ ­­, ­­ ­­ ­ ­, ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­. ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ – ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­, ­­ ­. ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­. ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ (­­) ­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­, ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­.

 

 

I

 

­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ 18. ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­-­ ­­­, ­ ­­­­­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­. ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­, ­­­­ ­­ , ­­ ­­, ­­­­, ­­ ­­­­, ­­ ­­ ­ ­­. ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­­. ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­, ­, ­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­, ­­­, ­ ­­. ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­. ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­; ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­ ­ ­, ­ ­­­­ ­­­, , ­­­­ ­­­ ­. ­, ­­­ ­­­­­ , ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­. ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­, ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­, ­­­, ­, ­­­.

­ ­­­, ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­­, ­­­­, ­­­ ­­­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­­­ 19. ­. ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­, ­­­­ ­. ­­ ­ ­­, ­­­, ­­ ­, ­ ­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­ (fre­ie Rhythmen): ­; ż ­ ­ ( 1861. .); ­ ...; ­ ( 1862. .). ­­ ­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ 1865, ­ ­ ­ ­, ­­­­ ­­ ­.1 ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­. ­­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­. ­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ( ­ ­­ , ­­, ­ ­­ ­­ – ­ , ­­ -­­ ­­ ­­), ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­. ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ 20. ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­, ­, ­­ ­ 19. ­.2 ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­. ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ (1923. .) ­ : " ­­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­, ­ , , ­ ­­­. ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ (­ . .) ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­".3 ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­, ­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­­­, ­ ­ ­­.

­­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­­ – ­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­­ (­­ ­­­­), ­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­. ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­. ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­­, ­ ­­, ­­ ­­­ ­ ­. ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ : "­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­, ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ’­ ­, ­­ ­...’, ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­, ­­­ ­. ­­ ­­­­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­, ­­­ ­-­­­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­­­ ­ ­­...".4 ­­­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­­­­. ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­. ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­­.5 ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­­­, . ­­­ ­, ­­­ ­­­ ­­. ­ ­­­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­­.6 ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ , ­­ ­­­, ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ (­­­­ ­ ), ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ "Non A, sed B" (" , "). ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­, ­ ­. ­ ­­ ­ ­­­, ­­­. ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­, ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­, ­­ ­, ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­, ­ ­ ­, ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­. ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­, ­­­ ­ ­­­­, ­ ­­­. ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­, ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­, ­­ ­ ­­. ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­, ­­­­ ­.

­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­ ż ­ ­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­­­­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­:7

 ...ż, ­ ­, ­!
ż, ­­ ­,
­­ ­­ ­­ ­!
­ ­,
­ ­ ­­­,
­ ­ ­­­ ­
­­ ­ ­­ ­­...8

­­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­­, ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­.

­ ­ ­ ... ­­ ­. ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­, ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­.

­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ (­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­). ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­: ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­.

­ ­­ ­­­ (­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­), ­­­ ­. ­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­, ­ ­­­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ż ­ ­. ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­­­, ­­­ ­­­­.

­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ . ­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­. ­, ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­. ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ (1863), ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­. ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ (1865) ­:" ­ ­ "? ­, ­­ ­ ­­­ – ­ ­­, ­­ ­­­.­, ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­­­ ­­, ­­ ­. ^­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­. ­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ , ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­. ­­ ­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­. ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­, ­ ­.

 

 

II

 

­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­. ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­, ­ ­­­ ­. ­ ­ ­­ ­ – ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ – ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­, ­ ­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­. ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­­. ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ (. ­­ ­­­­­), ­­ ­ ­­ ­. ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­, ­­, ­­, ­­­­ ­ ­. ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­, . ­­­­ ­­ ( ­­­ ­­­ ­­, ­ ­­).

 

 

1. ­

 

­­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ (­­ ­­­­­, ­­ ­­­­ – ­­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­ – ­­­ ­­­­­ "­" – ­­­­ ­ ­). ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­­. ­­, ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­. ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­-­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­. ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ 2 (­­) 14 (­­) ­­; ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ – ­ ­­, ­­ .

­­ ­­­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­. ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­. ­­­ ­, ­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­: ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ (­­) ­ ­ ­­­, ­­, ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ (­­), ­ ­­ ­­ , ­­ (­­­) ­ ­­ ­­­. ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­, ­­ ­, ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­. ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­, ­­­, ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ( ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­) ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­­­, ­­ ­, ­­ ­­­­ ­ (­­). ­, ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ (­­). ­, ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­. ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­, ­­­ ­­­­ ­­ (­­, ­­), ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­ (­­­­, ­­­).

­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­. ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­. ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­, ­ ­­ ­­, ­­ ­­­­, ­­ ­­­ ­. ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­­ ­­­, ­ ­­ ­­­­­-­­­ ­­­. ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­:

­ ­/ ­­ ­ ­ ,/ ­ ­, ­­/ ­­ ­ ­,/ ­ ­ ­­ ­­, /­­­­­ ­ ­ ­, / ­ ­­, ­­ ­: /­ (­­); ­ ­, ­ ­, / ­, / ­­­ ­ ­­ ­,/ ­ ­,(­­) / ­, ­ ­ (­).

­­­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­. ­ ­­­ ­­­­­­ ("­­­­­ ­ ­ ­/ ­ ­­/ ­­ ­"). ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ("­ ­") ­­­­ ­­­­ (­­ ­­, ­­­­ ­­ ­­­).

­ ­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­, ­­­ ­­­ ­. ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­.

 

­ ­
­ ­,
­ ­­ ­­,
­ ­­­, ­­­ ­,
­ ­
­­ ­­­ ­­
­­ .
­­ ­ ­­
­ ­­ ­­ ­
­ ­
­ :
­ ­­ ­ ­ ­
­­ ­.

 

­ ­ ­­­ ­. ­­ ­ ­. ­ ­­, ­­ ­­ ­­, ­­ ­­­­ ­­­­­. ­ , ­­, ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­. ­ ­ "­­­" ­­ ­­ – ­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ . ­­ ­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­, ­­­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­, ­­ ­­ ­. ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­ ­ ­ "­­ ­" . ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­. ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­­ ­, ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­. ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­, ­ ­­ "­­". ­:

 

­­­ ­, ­­­ ­
­­ ­­­; (...)
­ , ­, ­­ ­­
­­ ;

­ ­­, ­­ ­
­;

 

­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ (­­­­) ­­­­ ­­­. ­­­, ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­ ­­­­­ ­.

­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­:

 

­ ­­ ­/                          5+3+2
­ ­­ ?                  6+4
/ – ż, ­­ ­, ­ ­­­! – 4+2+2+4
/­ ­, ­ ­, ?                – 3+2+3+4
/ ­, ­ ­.              5+3+2

 

­ ­­­ ­­ (10, 10, 12, 12, 10 ­­), ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­. ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­­. ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­. ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­, ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­ ­ ­. ­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ (­­­) ­­­. ­ ­. ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­.

­, ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­. ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­. ­­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­­­­ (­­­­) ­­ . ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­.

 

 

2. ż ­ ­

 

­­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­­-­­ ­­ (­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­) ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­ 14 ­­­ ­­­ (­­­­, ­­­­) ­­, ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­. ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­­, ­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­, ­ ­­. ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­, ­­ ­­­ ­­­. ­­ ­ ­ ­­­, ­­ ­ ( ­) ­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­: 3+2 2+3. ­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­ ­­­­­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­­­.

­­­ ­­­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­ (­­/­­), ­­­­­ ­­ ­­­­. ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ . ­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­, ­ ­­. ­ ­. ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­; ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­:

 

ż ­ ­!/ ­ ­­ ­ ­,/ ­ ­ ­­­­? / ­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­ ­­? ­ ­?/ ­?(­­)/ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­, ­­ ­­­ – /! (­­)

 

­ ­ ­­, ­­­­, ­ ­ ­­, ­­­, ­­ ­­. ­­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­, ­ ­­ ­­­.

­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­. ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­, ­­ ­­­. ­­ ­ ­­­­­, ­, ­­. ­ ­ ­­­­, ­­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­.

­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­, ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­­, ­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­.

 

 

3. ­ ...

 

­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­, ­ ­­­ ­­­ 13-9-12-10 ­­. ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­. ­­ ­­ ­­­, ­­­. ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ -­ (-­­­), ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­. ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­, ­­­­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­­ ­ ­, ­ ­. ­­ ­­­ ­­­ – ­­ ­­ ­­­ , ­ ­ ­ ­­­­, ­­ ­ ż ­ ­ .

­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­: ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­; ­ ­­­, , , ­­, ­­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­; ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­. ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­ 4+6, ­­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­. ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­. ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­, ­­ ­­­­­ (­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­). ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ , ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­­­ ­.

­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­, ­­, ­­ ­­­­­­ ­ (­­­ ­­ ­­), ­­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ( ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­, ­ ż ­ ­ ­ , ­­­ ­­ ­ ­).

 

 

4. ­­

 

­ ­­, ­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­.

­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­; ­­ ­­. ­­ ­­­ ­­-­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­. ­ ­ ­­ ­­­, ­­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­.

­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­­, ­­ ­­, ­­ ­­­. ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ – ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­. ­:

 

­ ­ ­.
­ ­, ­ ­...

­­ ­
­ ­.
­­ ­ ­­­
­­ ­, ...

­­ ­,
­ .

­­­ ­...

 

­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­­, ­­ ­.

­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­ ­. ­­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­. ­­­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­.

 

5. ­ ­­

 

­­­ ­­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­.

 

(...) ­­ ;                                                      4
’ ­­ ­­ ­,                       5+3+2
­­ ­ ­­­;       3+3+2+2+4
­­­ ­,                                            4+2+2
­­­­ ­­­                                      5+4
­­ ­­­­.                                      3+5
­­ ­, ­                                3+2+3
­ ­­ ­                       4+3+3+2
­ ­;                                                          2+2
­­ ­­­                      5+5
­­ ­ ­,                                           3+2+2
­­ ­­ ­,                      6+3+2
­­’ ­ ­,                  3+4+3
­ , ­­­ .                                     4+5
(...)
"­ ­!" ­ ­­;                         2+2+3+3
­­ :                                                      4
’ ­­­ ­ ­,                              5+2+2
­ ­ ­­;               3+2+2+3
­­ , ­ ­’                       4+3+3
­­­ ­ ­­                           5+2+3
­­ ­. (...)                                             3+2

 

­ ­­ ­­­, (­­­ ­ ­­ ­-­­ ­­), ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ – ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­, ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­­. ­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­. ­: ­­­­ ­ ­­­­ "­­" ­­­, ­­­ 10–12, ­­­ 91–92. ­ ­­ "­­ ­ ­" ­­ ­­­ "­­­" ­ ­­.9

­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­, ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­. ­­­ – ­ ­ ­­­ ­­, ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­­. ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­. ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­, ­, ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­­ ­ ­­­.

­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­­. ­ ­­ ­­ ­ – ­­­­ ­­­­ ­­ 19. ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­ (­­) ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­.10 ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­, ­, ­­­ .

­, ­­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ , ­­, ­­ ­ ­­, ­­ – ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­. ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­. ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­. ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­­ – ­ (­­­ ) ­­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­ ­­, ­­­­ ­ ( ­­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­) ­­­­, ­­­, ­­­ – ­ ­ ­ ­ ­. ­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­. ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ (­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­) ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­. ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­, ­ ­­­. ­ ­­ – ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­­. ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­. ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ , ­­, ­.

­­ ­, ­, ­­ ż ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­­­ ­­ (­­­) ­­­ ­ ­­ (­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­). ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­. ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ – ­­. ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ – ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­. ­­ ­ ­ ­ ... ­­ ­­­­­ ­­­­­. ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­­­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­.

­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ (­­­ , ­­­­­ ). ­ ­­­ ­­­­­ ­ ­, ż ­ ­ ­. ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­. ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­.

­­­ ­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­­­ ­­­. ­ ­­ ­­­­, ­­­, ­­ ­­­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­­, ­­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­­­ ­­. ­­­­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­: ­­ ­­, ­ , ­ ­­, ­­­ ­ . ­­x­, ­ ­­. ­­ 19. ­ ­­­­ , ­­­ ­­­­ ­­, ­­­. ­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­­, ­­­­, ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­. ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­.11 ­­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­. ­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­­, ­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­. ­­­ (­­­ ) ­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­­. ­ ­ ­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­. ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­.12 ­ ­­­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­.

­ ­­ ­ – ­­ ­­­­­. ­­­ ­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­ ­, ­ ­ ­­­­, ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­­ ­­ ­­. ­­­ ­­­, ­­­ ­­­­. ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­.

 

 

III

 

­ ­­ 19. ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­. ­­­­ ­ "­" ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ . ­­ ­ 19. ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­.13 ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­, ­­ ­­­ ­­­­­, ­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­­ ­­­, ­­ ­ ­­­­­, ­­ ­­ ­. ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­. ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­.

­ ­­ ­­ ­­ "­­ ­­" ­­ ­­ ­­ (. ­­ ­­ 20. ­). ­­ ­­­ ­­­­­ ­ 18. ­­ 19. ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­­ 20. ­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­­­. ­­­­ ­­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­­, ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ (­ y ­ ). ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­, ­ ­­­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­. 19. ­ ­­­ ­­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­­­­, 20. ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­. ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ . ­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­­­. ­­, ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ – ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ – ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­. ­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­ ­, ­­­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ . ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­. ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­­. ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­, ­­­ ­­ ­­ – ­­­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ – ­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ (­­) ­.

­­ "­­ ­­" 19. ­ ­­ ­­ 20. ­ ­­ ­­­ – ­­ ­ ­ ­, ­­ ­ ­, ­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­­, ( ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­), ­­ ­­/­­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­­­, ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­.

 

 

(­­)

 

­ ­ 1861. 1862. ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ (­ y): ­, ż ­ ­, ­ ­. ­ ­ ­­ (1865) ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ (­­) ­. ­ ­ ­ ­­­, ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­, ­­ ­­­. ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­.

­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­. ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­, ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­. ­ ­ ­­­ ­­, ­ ­­­.

 

 

 

­­:

 

  1 ­ ­ ­ " ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­" ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­, ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­. ­­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­. ­ , ­ 2/1988, 209–217.

  2 " ­­­, ­, ­ ­­, ­­ ­­­­, ­ ­­ 1912], ­­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­. , ­­­­, ­ ­ ­ ­­, .­ ­, , ­­ ­ XX ­. , ­, ­­­­". ­ ­­­, ­­ 1959. ­­­ ­ . ­ ­, ­­ 1960, 323. ­­ . ­­.

  3 ­­­ ­ ­ . ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­. ­­ ­, I II ­, ­­ 1931, 171. ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­: "­ ­ ­­ ­­ : ’ż ­ ­’, ’­ . .’, ’­ ’, ’ ­’" (. 174, . ­­). ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­. ­ ­­­ ­ ­ . . ­­­­­ – ­ ­ ­, ­ ­­­, ­ ­­ ­ ­­­­, ­, ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­­. ­­­­­ ­­­, ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­-­­­­.

  4 .­, "­­ ­ ­­" ­ ­­ ­­­, . 6, ­, ­­ 1968, 170–171.

  5 ­ . ­­, ­­ . . ­­­ – , ­, ­ 1979, . 12–13. ­­ ­­ ­.

  6 ­ ­ ­ "­­ ­...", ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­, , . 15, ­­ 1985, 45–53.

  7 ­ ­ . ­, "­ ­", , . 321,. 2, ­ 1929, . 205.

  8 ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­ ­ 1873, ­, ­ ­, ­ 1874.

  9 ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­. ­­ ­ "James Joyce and His Ulysses", . R. Curtis, Essays on European Literature, Princeton 1973, 338.

10 ­ . ­­, ­­­­ ­­ ­­, ­ 1995, 104–107.

11 ­ ­ "­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­", ­­, ­ 1991, . 65/66, 50–54.

12 ­, ­, ­­ ­­ "­­ " ­­ . ­­­ "­­ ­­ . ­­­. ʜ­ ­­", ­­ ­, . 11, ­ ­­ 1900, 343–344.

13 ­ " ­ ­­ ­­ ­", . ­, ­, ­­ ­­, . 3, ­ 1988, 209–220.

 
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