ϣ - Σ Ŋ Print E-mail
­­ ­

­ ­ ­ "­­­­", ­ ­ ­ ­­ "­­­"¹ ­­­­ ­ ­². ­­­­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­, ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­. ­, ­ ­­ ­ ­­­­.
­­­­ ­­­ ­, ­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­, ­­, ­­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­, ­. ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­: ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­ ­. ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ – ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ – ­­­ ­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­ ­ ­, ­ ­­: ­­­ ­ ­­­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­ (Gre­gory Ba­te­son): do­u­ble bind³. ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­.(Des cho­ses cahées de­pu­is la fon­da­tion du mon­de),­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­:

..."­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­­ "­­" ­ ­ , ­­ ­ ­ ­­, ­­ . ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­. ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­­. ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­; ­ ­, ­ ­ ­, ­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­ ­­­, ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­-. ­ ­ ­ ­­ "­­­­­" ­ ­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­. [...] ­ ­ ­­ , ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­. ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­, ­­­, ­ , ­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­ ­ . ­­ ­ ­ ­, ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­, ­­ ­­­­ ­­­­­.
­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­. ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­. ­­ ­­­ "­" ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­. [...] "­­­­" , ­­­­, ­­ "­" ­, ­­­." [­ ­­­ ­­ ­, . 320–321]

­­­ ­ ­ ­­: " ­ ­­­ ­ ()". ­ ­­­ ­­, ­, ­­ ­­. ­ ­ ­ ­. ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­­ ­, ­­, ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­.
­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ "­­­­", ­ ­­ ­­­­ , ­­ ­­­­ ­.
­ , ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­⁴ ­­­­, ­­ ­ ­­­­: ­­ ­­. ­­­ ­ ­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­: ­­­ ­­ ­­­, "­­­" ­­ ­, ­ ­­.
­­ ­­­­ ­­ – ­­­, ­­­­, ­­, ­­­­, ­­­, . – ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­­­ ­­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­ ­. ­­­ ­­ - ­ ­­ – ­, ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­, ­ , ­­ ­, ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ – ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­, ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­.
­­ ­­­­, ­­ ­­. ­ ­ ­­? ­­­­ ­­ ­­, ­­­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­; ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­, ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­. ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­, , ­­ . ­ ­­, "­­­" ­ ­ ­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­, ­, ­­­ ­­ ­ ­. ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­.
­­, ­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ , ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­­. ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­: ­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­. ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ "­­­ ­­­", ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­. ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­:
..."­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­: ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­. ­ ­­ ­­­ ­. ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­. ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­. ­ ­­ ­ ­, ­ ­, ­ ­­ ­ ­­­. ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­". [­­­ ­ ­­­ ­, . 19]

­­­ ­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ (Lucien Scubla). ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­, ­­­­ ­, ­­ ­ ­­­. ­­, ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ : ­­, ­ ­­­. ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­. ­­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­: ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­, ­­­ ­­­ ­­. "­­ ­­­", ­ ­ ­, ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­⁵.
­, ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­:

..."[­] ­­ ­ ­ ­ "­­ ­­­­", ­ ­ ­­ ­, ­­, ­ ­­ ­ ­­­. ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­, ­­­ ­­. ­­­ ­­ – ­­, ­­­ – ­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­­. ­­, ­ ­, ­­­­ , ­ ­ ­ ­, ­­, ­­ ­­­­, ­ ­­­ ­­­­, ­­­ ­­. ­ ­ ­ ­, ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­. ­­, ­­­ ­ ­ : ­­ ­­­ ­­­. ­­, ­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­­­­­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­⁶."

­­ , ­ ­­ ­. ­ ­ ­ ­­­­.


­­­ ­­

­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­. ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­­ ­, ­ ­ ­ ­­, ­­­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­-­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­. ­­ ­ ­ ­­, ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­. ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­­? ­ ­ ­­­ , ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­, ­­­­ ­­­, ­ ­­ ­ "­­", ­ , ­­ ­­ ­­?
­ ­, ­­ ­­­­, ­­ ­. ­­­ ­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­­­ ­­, "­": ­­­ ­, "­­­", ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­. ­ ­ ­, ­­­, ­­; ­­ ­­ ­­­. ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­⁷.
­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­. ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ (­ ­) ­­ ­­, ­ ­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­⁸. ­­­­ ­, ­­ ­, ­­­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­­, ­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­­, ­­ ­­ ­ ­. ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­: ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­. ­­, ­­-­, ­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­­, ­­ ­ ­ ­­. ­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­, ­­­ ­­­­ ­­­­.
­­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­­ . " ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­?" ­ ­. ­­­­ ­ ­. ­ ­­­ ­­­. ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­, , ­, ­­ ­ ­­-­. ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­: ­­­ ­­ ­. ­ ­: ­. ­­ ­­­: ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­. ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ -­. ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ – ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­­ ­. ­ ­ ­ ­ ­: ­ ­. ­ ­:

"­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­. ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­­ ­­". [­­­ ­­­ ­, . 105–107]

­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­. , ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­. ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ "­­­"⁹. ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­. ­ ­ ­ . ­­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ – ­ ­­­ ­-­ ­ ­­­ – ­ ­ ­ 15 000 000 ­­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ . ­, ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­. ­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­, ­­ ­ ­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ? ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­? ­­ ­­ ­: ­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ x­­­: ­. ­ ­­. ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­. [ ­­ ­­­, ­­, ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­? ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­. ­­ ­­­ ­­: ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­? ­ ­­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­.
­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­. ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ – ­­ "­ ­" – ­ ­­. ­­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ – ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­­­­­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­­. ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­, ­ ¹⁰. ­ ­­­ ­-, ­­­­ ­-, ­­, ­ ­­­ ­ (­ ­), , . ­­­ ­, ­ , ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­. , , ­­­, ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ – , ­­­­, "­­­", ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ . ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­:
1. ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­;
2. ­, ­­ ­ ­­­.

­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­, ­. ­­, ­­. ­ ­ ­­, ­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­­­. ­­­ , ­ . ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ (­­ ­­­) ­­ ­ ( ), ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ( ­­ ­­): "­ ­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­, / ­ ­ ­ ­­, ­ ­"; , ­­, ­­­ ­­ ­ ( ­ y): " ­, ­­ ; ­­, ­". ­ ­­, ­­­­ ­, ­ ­­ , ­ ­, ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­, ­ "" ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­ , ­­, ­ ­­ ­­­, ­­­ ­ ­. ­­ ­ ­ ­­¹¹.
­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­ \­­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­­ – ­ , . ­­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­. ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­. ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­.
­ ­­, ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­: ­ ­ ­­, ­, ­­ ­, ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­ "­­­": ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­, ­ ­­­, ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­: ­­­­. ­­­ ­ ­­, ­ ­­­­ ­ "­­" ­ "­", ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­, ­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­­ ­­, ­ ­­­­, ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­.
­ ­­­ ­ ­. ­ ­. ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­­­, ­­ ­­­ ­? ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­, ­:

..." ­­ ­­­­, ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­. ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ "­­­", ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­". [­­­ ­­­ ­, . 107]

­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­. ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­, ­ ­­­. ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­, ­­­ ­, ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­, ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­. ­­­ , ­­­ ­­ ­­, ­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­. ­­! ­ ­­: ­ ­­­, ­, ­-­­­, ­ ­­ ­ ­. ­ ­: ­ ­­­, ­ ­, ­ ­ ­ ­­, ­­. ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­.


­­­­ ­­­­­­ ­­­

­­­ ­, ­ ­ ­­­. ­­­ ­ ­ ­, ­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­ ­. ­, ­­ ­ ­ ­­, ­­. ­­­, ­ ­: - ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­. ­­ ­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­. ­ ­­ ­­­. ­, ­­­, ­­ ­ ­; ­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ . ­­? , ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ , ­, ­ ­­. ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­. ­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­­ "­­­ ­­­": " ­ ­­ ­ ­; ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­..." ­­­ ­­, ­­, ­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­.

... "­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­, ­, ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­, ­­­­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­ ­­ ­." [­ ­­­ ­­ ­, . 394]

­, ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­, ­­ ­ ­, ­­­­ ­. ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­: ­­ ­­­ ­, ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­-­. ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­. ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­, ­ ­­ ­. ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­ ­ ­, ­, ­ ­ ­­: ­­ ­­­.
­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­. ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­, ­­­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­, ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­, ­ ­­ ­! ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­, ­ ­:

..."­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­. ­ ­­ ­. ­ ­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­, ­­ ­ ­. ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­, ­­­­ ­ ­ ­, ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ , ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­. ­ ­­ ­ ­ . ­ ­­­­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­­, ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­-­­ [...]
­­ ­ ­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­ ­­, ­­ , ­­­ ­­ ­­­­, ­­­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­, ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ , ­, ­ ­ ­ ­­. ­­­ ­ ­ , ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­. ­, ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­, ­ ­­­­, ­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­." [­ ­­­ ­­ ­, . 393–394]

­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­, ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­. ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­. ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ; ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­. ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­. ­­, ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­: ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­, ­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­­.


­­­­ ­­­


­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­ ­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­ . ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­. ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­. ­ ­­­­­­, ­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­­, ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ (­­­­), ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­. ­ ­­­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­, "" ­­ . ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­, ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ "­­­".
­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­, ­ ­­ ­­­­, ­­ ­­­ ­, ­­­, ­, ­. ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­. ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­. ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­. ­­. ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­.
, ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­­, ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ -­ ­­ , ­­­ , ­ ­ ­­. ­, ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­. ­­ ­ ­­ ­, ­ , ­ ­­­, ­­­. ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­. ­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­: ­­ ­­. ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­. ­ ­­­­ ­­, ­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ (1864).
­­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­. ­­­, ­ ­, ­ , ­. ­­­­, ­ ­­, ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­. ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­.
­­ ­ ­­? ­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­­­. ­, ­ ­ . ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­­, ­­, ­ ­. ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­. ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ -. ­ ­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­, ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­. ­ ­­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­­­ – ­ ­­­­­ – ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­­; ­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­­. ­­­ ­­­, ­­­­ ­­, ­­ ­­ ­ ­ . ­ ­ ­, ­ ­­, ­­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­­­­, ­ ­­­­­, ­, ­ ­­, ­­­ ­, ­­­­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­, ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­.
­­ ­­­­­, ­­­ ­­, ­­ ­­­ ­, ­­ ­­. ­, ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­­, ­­­­­ ­­ ­. ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ : ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­­, ­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­. ­, ­ ­ ­­, ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­: "". ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­­­ "­­ ­­", ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­­ ­­, ­­ ­:

... "­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­, ­ ­­­, ­­, ­­. ­ , ­­, ­ "­­­ ­­". ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­. ­­ "­­­­ ­­" ­ ­." [­­­ ­­­ ­, . 202]

­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ "­­­­ ­­". "­­" – ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ – ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­­:

..."­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­. ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­­ (-­) ­­. ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ , ­­ ­­, ­ ­­". [­­­ ­­­ ­, . 220]

­­ ­­: ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­, ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­? ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­? ­­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­:

..."­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­. ­ ­ ­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­. ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­. ­ ­ ­, ­, ; ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ [...] ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­. ­­ ­­­ ­. ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­. ­­, ­­ ­­­­ ­. ­­, ­­­ ­? ­. ; ­ ­. ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­." [­­­ ­­­ ­, . 220 –221]

­­­ ­­­­ – ­ ­ ­­ "­­­ ­­ ­­­­" (­­­ ­­­ ­, . 205) – ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­.
­­, ­­-­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­. ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­, ­­ ­­­­­ ­­­­ ­­­ – ­ ­, ­ [­­, ­­ ­­ ­­­ "­­­ ­­" (­­­ ­­­ ­, . 212); ­ ­ ­­, "­ ­ ­ ­­", ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­; ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­; ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­, ­­­ ­ ­­­­­­­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­; ­­ ­­­ ­­­­, ­­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­¹²; ­ ­ ­, ­; ­ ­ ­­; ­ ­ .
­ ­­, ­, ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­: ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­. ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­. ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­­.
­­ ­ ­­ ­­? ­ ­ ­ ­­­­­, ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­. ­ ­­ ­­. ­­, ­ ­­: ­­­­ ­. ­­ ­ ­: ­­­. ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­. ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­. ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­, ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ - ­­­. ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­¹³. ­­­? ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ : ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­, ­ ­, ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­, ­­ ­­­­ ­­­­, ­ ­­­­­. ­ ­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­.
, â ­ ­­ ­ . ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­. ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­: ­ ­ ­ ­­­, ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­. ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­. ­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­.
­ ­ ­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­­­. ­­ ­, ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­:

..." ­­ ­­­, ­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­ ­ ­. ­, ­, ­ ­ ­, ­ ­ ­ . ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­. ­, ­­­ ­, ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­. , ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ( ­­­ éï).
­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­; ­ ­­ â ­­­ ­ ­, ­­, ­ ­ ­­­.
­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­. ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­; ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­ ­­, ­­ ­; ­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­­­ ­, ­­ ­­­.
­­ ­­, ­­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­. ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­, ­­ ­, ­­­ ­ ­, ­ ­­ . ­­ ­, ­­, ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­.
­­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­­ ­­­­­; ­ ­­ ­ ­­­, ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­, ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­. [­ ­­­ ­­ ­, . 383–384; ­­ ­­, "­­­ ­"]

­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­:
1. ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­: ­ ­ ­­ " ­ ­ ", ­ ­, "­­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­". ­ ­ , ­­, ­ ­­­­­, ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­­­: ­­ ­­ ­ – ­ ­­­ ­, – ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ â ­. ­­­ ­ " ­­­ ­", "­­" "­­­", "­ " ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­: ­, ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­. ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­­­­. ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­ .
2. ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ "­" , ­ ­ ­ ­. ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­. ­­ ­­­­ ­­­­ (­­­­­) ­­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­ (­­­­­)? ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­, ­­­ ­ ­­, ­­­ ­­­­ ­­­­. ­ ­­­ ­­­. ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­. "­ ­­" ­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­­­. ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­. ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­, ­­, ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­­­ ­­. ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­.
3. ­­, ­­­­­ ­ ­­ "­­­ ­­­" ­­­ ­, ­ ­ ­­­­­ ­­­­­, "­­­­ ­­" ­­­­­. ­­, ­­ , ­ ­ ­­ ­­ . ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­: ­ ­­ ­ "­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ". ­­ ­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­, ­­­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­, ­­­ ­­.
4. ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­­ , ­­. ­ ­ ­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­.
5. ­­ ­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­ ­, ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­ ­­: "­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­ [...] ­­ ­, ­­, ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­". "­­", ­ ­­, " ­­­ ­" ­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ( ­­) ­ ­­­ ­. ­ ­ ­­: "­­ ­, ­­, ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­". ­, ­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­.

Jean – Pi­er­re Du­puy, La ja­lo­u­sie / un géométrie du désir, Se­uil 2016
­ ­­ ­­ ­­

­­:

1 ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­, ­­­ 1961, ­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­. ­ ­ ­­­ "­­­­ ­". ­ ­ ­ ­­­­: "­­­­ ­". ­­­ . ­ "­­­ ­" ­­, ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­­­, ­ ­­ (Dostoïevski, du do­u­ble à l’u­nité, Plon. 1963).
2 ­ ­­­ ­ ­­, ­. ­ , ­ ­­ 1990, ­­ ­ "­­­ ­", ­ "­­­­", ­­ "­", ­.
3 ­­ ­
4 ­ ­ ­, ­­­ ­ ­. ­ , ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­.
5 ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ "­­­ ­­" ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­. ­­ ­ , ­­ 2.
6 ­ ­, ­ ­­. ­­ "­­ ­­­ ­" (Con­tri­bu­tion à la théorie du sac­ri­fi­ce) ­­ ­­ -ϼ­ ­­, ­ ­­­­ ­(Mic­hel De­guy et Jean-Pi­er­re Du­puy, René Gi­rard et le problème du mal, Pa­ris, Gras­set, 1982, p. 147).
7 Médi­a­tion do­u­ble
8 Stend­hal, Le Ro­u­ge et le No­ir
9 ­­ , ­­­: ­ ­ 1914. (Chri­stop­her Clark, The Sle­ep­njal­kers: Honj Eu­ro­pe NJent to NJar in 1914, Har­per, 2013).
10 ­ ­­ "­ ­", ­ "­ ­­­ ­" ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­. ­­ ­­­ ­­­ (In­tro­duc­tion aux sci­en­ces so­ci­a­les. Lo­gi­ljue des phénom­ènes col­lec­tifs, Pa­ris, El­lip­ses, 1992).
­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­ ­­­. ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­. ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­, ­. ­­­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­.
11 ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ XX ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­­­, ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­. ­­ -ϼ ­, "­ ­ ­­­ ­­: ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­" (Jean-Pi­er­re Du­puy, "LJu­a­si-ob­ject and symbo­lic ex­chan­ge: from Cor­ne­il­le’s Ali­dor to Mo­liè­re’s Don Juan", Mo­dern Lan­gu­a­ge No­tes, vol. 104, n° 4, sep­tem­bre 1989, p. 757–786).
12 ­­­ ­­ ­
13 ­: " ­" ("Le sig­ne et l’en­vie" in Paul Du­mo­uc­hel et Jean-Pi­er­re Du­puy), ­ ­. ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ (L’en­fer des cho­ses. René Gi­rard et la lo­gi­ljue de l’éco­no­mie, Pa­ris, Se­uil, 1979); ­ ­ (Le Sac­ri­fi­ce et l’En­vie, Pa­ris, Cal­mann-Lévy, 1992); "­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­" ("In­vi­di­o­us sympathy in Adam Smith’s The­ory of Mo­ral Sen­ti­ments", The Adam Smith Re­vi­enj, vol. II, 2006, p. 96–121).
 
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